Comparative Genomics in Drosophila.

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Comparative Genomics in Drosophila.

Methods Mol Biol. 2018;1704:433-450

Authors: Oti M, Pane A, Sammeth M

Abstract
Since the pioneering studies of Thomas Hunt Morgan and coworkers at the dawn of the twentieth century, Drosophila melanogaster and its sister species have tremendously contributed to unveil the rules underlying animal genetics, development, behavior, evolution, and human disease. Recent advances in DNA sequencing technologies launched Drosophila into the post-genomic era and paved the way for unprecedented comparative genomics investigations. The complete sequencing and systematic comparison of the genomes from 12 Drosophila species represents a milestone achievement in modern biology, which allowed a plethora of different studies ranging from the annotation of known and novel genomic features to the evolution of chromosomes and, ultimately, of entire genomes. Despite the efforts of countless laboratories worldwide, the vast amount of data that were produced over the past 15 years is far from being fully explored.In this chapter, we will review some of the bioinformatic approaches that were developed to interrogate the genomes of the 12 Drosophila species. Setting off from alignments of the entire genomic sequences, the degree of conservation can be separately evaluated for every region of the genome, providing already first hints about elements that are under purifying selection and therefore likely functional. Furthermore, the careful analysis of repeated sequences sheds light on the evolutionary dynamics of transposons, an enigmatic and fascinating class of mobile elements housed in the genomes of animals and plants. Comparative genomics also aids in the computational identification of the transcriptionally active part of the genome, first and foremost of protein-coding loci, but also of transcribed nevertheless apparently noncoding regions, which were once considered "junk" DNA. Eventually, the synergy between functional and comparative genomics also facilitates in silico and in vivo studies on cis-acting regulatory elements, like transcription factor binding sites, that due to the high degree of sequence variability usually impose increased challenges for bioinformatics approaches.

PMID: 29277877 [PubMed - in process]

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Comparative Genomics in Homo sapiens.

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Comparative Genomics in Homo sapiens.

Methods Mol Biol. 2018;1704:451-472

Authors: Oti M, Sammeth M

Abstract
Genomes can be compared at different levels of divergence, either between species or within species. Within species genomes can be compared between different subpopulations, such as human subpopulations from different continents. Investigating the genomic differences between different human subpopulations is important when studying complex diseases that are affected by many genetic variants, as the variants involved can differ between populations. The 1000 Genomes Project collected genome-scale variation data for 2504 human individuals from 26 different populations, enabling a systematic comparison of variation between human subpopulations. In this chapter, we present step-by-step a basic protocol for the identification of population-specific variants employing the 1000 Genomes data. These variants are subsequently further investigated for those that affect the proteome or RNA splice sites, to investigate potentially biologically relevant differences between the populations.

PMID: 29277878 [PubMed - in process]

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QAlign: quality-based multiple alignments with dynamic phylogenetic analysis.

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QAlign: quality-based multiple alignments with dynamic phylogenetic analysis.

Bioinformatics. 2003 Aug 12;19(12):1592-3

Authors: Sammeth M, Rothgänger J, Esser W, Albert J, Stoye J, Harmsen D

Abstract
Integrating different alignment strategies, a layout editor and tools deriving phylogenetic trees in a 'multiple alignment environment' helps to investigate and enhance results of multiple sequence alignment by hand. QAlign combines algorithms for fast progressive and accurate simultaneous multiple alignment with a versatile editor and a dynamic phylogenetic analysis in a convenient graphical user interface.

PMID: 12912847 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Posted in Bioinformatics | Comments closed